Professor Benjamin Kedar

Contact Details

Department of History
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem 91905



When and where did you initially develop an interest in the history of the crusades and/or the Latin East?

As an undergraduate at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, during the academic year 1958-59.

Who or what sparked your enthusiasm for the subject?

Joshua Prawer's year-long course on the history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and especially the four-days-long excursion, under Prawer's guidance, to crusader castles and churches.


Please provide details of your Higher Education, including dates, institution(s) and the name(s) of your research supervisors.

1958 - 61 BA in History and Sociology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

1961 - 65 MA in History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Research supervisor, Joshua Prawer

1965 - 69 PhD in Medieval Studies, Yale University
Research supervisor, Robert S Lopez

Career History

Please provide details of your academic career history, including confirmation of your current institutional affiliation and contact details.

  • Teaching Assistant in History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1963 - 65
  • Lecturer in History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the University of Beersheba, 1969 - 76
  • Senior Lecturer in History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1976 -
  • Alexander von Humboldt Fellow, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Munich, 1976 - 77
  • Associate Professor, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1981 -
  • Fellow, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 1981 - 82
  • Fellow, Research group on the Crusades, Institute for Advanced Studies, Jerusalem,
    1983 - 84 (Members of the group: Joshua Prawer, RC Smail, Hans Eberhard Mayer, Robert Huygens, John Pryor, Malcolm Lyons, Sylvia Schein)
  • Convener, Colloquium on the Italian communes in the Levant, Jerusalem, 1984
  • Professor, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1986 -
  • Convener, Second SSCLE Conference, Jerusalem and Haifa, 1987
  • President, SSCLE, 1995 - 2002
  • Convener, Fifth SSCLE Conference, Jerusalem and Haifa, 1999
  • Chair of the Board, Israel Antiquities Authority, 2000 -
  • Co-Editor, Crusades, 2002 -
  • Professor Emeritus, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, April 2007

Influences and Methodologies

What ideas and/or methodologies have informed your approach to your research?

The study of Frankish society – under the impact of Joshua Prawer and RC ("Otto") Smail (whom I guided in 1965 for about a week on an excursion to Frankish castles and churches in northern and central Israel, and who became a lifelong friend)

Quantitative and comparative history – here the impact of Robert Lopez was initially decisive; later (for comparative history), the works of Marc Bloch

The importance of canon law for social and cultural history – here my studies with Stephan Kuttner (at Yale) were decisive.

The importance of going beyond the Crusader/Frankish perspective – Lopez, Prawer

The study of neglected or unknown chapters in the history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem – Frankish hermits; Muslims under Frankish rule; Frankish demography

The importance of checking printed editions by taking recourse to manuscripts – initially, Kuttner; later, Robert Huygens (a close friend since the early 1980s)

The confidence that there is a good chance to discover new texts or unknown manuscripts – Lopez, Kuttner, and later SD Goitein (who became a close friend from the early 1970s until his death in 1985); also, David Jacoby, Geo Pistarino, Gabriella Airaldi

The importance of sociological theory for historical research – SN Eisenstadt and Jacob Katz, who were my teachers in Jerusalem and introduced me to the works of Max Weber, Karl Mannheim etc

The importance of a close study of the terrain in which a battle took place: RC Smail, Peter Herde, Joshua Prawer

Research Outlook

What do you consider to be the most important avenues for future research in the field of crusader studies?

1. Studying non-Western sources – many of them still unedited, most of them un-translated into European languages – for their possible contributions to crusade history; combing European libraries and archives for unknown Western sources

2. Studying the various kinds of impact of the Oriental population and culture on the Franks (and, to a lesser extent, the Frankish impact on the Oriental population)

1. and 2. mean that crusade historians should become less Eurocentric and attempt to understand the perspectives of the crusaders' erstwhile rivals, foes and subjects

3. Studying the phenomenon of the crusade, and the Frankish Kingdom, in a broad comparative framework: for instance, how do Frankish institutions compare with Byzantine, Western, and Oriental (Muslim and Eastern Christian) ones? To what extent can one assume mutual influences? How do these institutions compare with institutions that arose under similar circumstances in pre- or post-medieval times?

Research Output

Please provide details of your research output, including publications and other media as appropriate.

"Noms de saints et mentalité populaire à Gênes au XIVe siècle,” Moyen  Age 73 (1967), 31-46.

"Again: Arabic rizq, Medieval Latin risicum," Studi Medievali 10/3 (1969), 255-59 [reprinted  in No 65].

"The Jewish Community of Jerusalem in the Thirteenth Century," Tarbiz 41 (1971/72), 82-94 [in Hebrew].

"Canon Law and Local Practice: The Case of Mendicant Preaching in Late Medieval England," Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law 2 (1972), 17-32.

"The Passenger List of a Crusader Ship, 1250: Toward the History of the Popular Element on the Seventh Crusade," Studi Medievali 13/1 (1972), 267-79 [reprinted in No 65].

"Notes on the History of the Jews of Palestine in the Middle Ages," Tarbiz 42 (1972/73), 401-18 [in Hebrew].

"Toponymic Surnames as Evidence of Origin: Some Medieval Views," Viator 4 (1973), 123-29.

"The General Tax of 1183 in the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem: Innovation or Adaptation?" English Historical Review  89 (1974), 339-45 [reprinted in No 65].

"Between Arabs and Crusaders, 634-1291," in Dan Bahat, BZ Kedar and Ze'ev Vilnay, The Continuity of the Jewish Community in the Land of Israel (Tel Aviv, 1974), pp 35-68 (in Hebrew).

October 1973: The Story of an Armored Battalion. Tammuz: Tel Aviv, 1975. 143 pp   [in Hebrew].

(with A Kaufman:) "Radiocarbon Measurements of Medieval Mortars: A Preliminary Report," Israel Exploration Journal 25 (1975), 36-38.

"Notices on the Jews of Palestine in 18th-Century Protestant Sources," in Erez-Israel, vol 12 (Jerusalem, 1975), pp 203-06 [in Hebrew].

Merchants in Crisis: Genoese and Venetian Men of Affairs and the Fourteenth-Century Depression. Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 1976. 260 pp

"Segurano-Sakran Salvaygo: Un mercante genovese al servizio dei sultani mamalucchi, c 1303-1322," in Fatti e idee di storia economica nei secoli XII-XX. Studi dedicati a Franco Borlandi (Bologna, 1976), pp 75-91 [reprinted in No 65].

"R Yehiel of Paris and Palestine," Shalem 2 (1976), 307-12 [in Hebrew].

(with Eliyahu Ashtor:) "Una guerra fra Genova e i Mamlucchi negli anni 1380," Archivio Storico Italiano 133 (1975), 3-44 [published in 1977].

"The Genoese Notaries of 1382: The Anatomy of an Urban Occupational Group," in The Medieval City. Studies in Honor of Robert S Lopez, ed Harry A Miskimin, David Herlihy and AL Udovitch (New Haven and London, 1977), pp 73-94.

"Chi era Andrea Franco?" Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria 91 (1977), 371-77.

(with GA Mook:) "Radiocarbon Dating of Mortar from the City-Wall of Ascalon," Israel Exploration Journal 28 (1978), 173-76.

Ed: Jerusalem in the Middle Ages. Selected Papers. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi: Jerusalem, 1979. 400 pp [in Hebrew].

"A Commentary on the Book of Isaiah Ransomed from the Crusaders," in Jerusalem in  the Middle Ages, pp 107-11 [in Hebrew].

"The Jews of Jerusalem, 1187-1267, and the Role of Nahmanides in the Re-Establishment of their Community," in Jerusalem in the Middle Ages, pp 122-36 [in Hebrew].

"Jerusalemite Jews in Genoese Famagusta," in Jerusalem in the Middle Ages, pp 197-205 [in Hebrew].

"Canon Law and the Burning of the Talmud," Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law 9 (1979), 79-82.

(with Sylvia Schein:) "Un projet de 'passage particulier' proposé par l'ordre de l'Hôpital, 1306-07,” Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Chartes  137 (1979), 211-26 [reprinted in No 65].

"Continuity and Change in Jewish Conversion in 18th-Century Germany," in The Jacob Katz Jubilee Volume (Jerusalem, 1980), pp 154-70 [in Hebrew].

Mercanti in crisi a Genova e Venezia nel '300. Jouvence: Rome, 1981. 353 pp [revised translation of No 12].

Ed, with Hans Eberhard Mayer and RC Smail: Outremer. Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi: Jerusalem, 1982. 346 pp

"The Patriarch Eraclius," in Outremer, pp 177-204 [reprinted in No 65].

"Ein Hilferuf aus Jerusalem vom September 1187," Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 38 (1982), 112-22 [reprinted in No 65].

"Masada: The Myth and the Complex," ­The Jerusalem Quarterly 24 (1982), 57-63.

(with Christian Westergård-Nielsen:) "Icelanders in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Twelfth-Century Account," Mediaeval Scandinavia 11 (1978-79), 193-211 [published in 1983; reprinted in No 65].

"Gerard of Nazareth: A Neglected Twelfth-Century Writer in the Latin East. A Contribution to the Intellectual and Monastic History of the Crusader States," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 37 (1983), 55-77 [reprinted in No 65].

"Palmarée, abbaye clunisienne du XIIe siècle en Galilée,” Revue Bénédictine 93 (1983), 260-69 [reprinted in No 65].

"Mercanti genovesi in Alessandria d'Egitto negli anni Sessanta del secolo XI," in Miscellanea di studi storici 2, Collana storica di fonti e studi diretta da Geo Pistarino, 38 (Genoa, 1983), pp 19-30 [reprinted in No 65].

Crusade and Mission: European Approaches toward the Muslims. Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1984. 246 pp [paperback edition, 1988].

"Jews and Samaritans in the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem," Tarbiz 53 (1983/84), 387-408 [in Hebrew].

"Ecclesiastical Legislation in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Statutes of Jaffa (1253) and Acre (1254)," in Crusade and Settlement. Papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Cardiff, September 1983, ed Peter W Edbury (Cardiff, 1985), pp 225-30 [reprinted in No 65].

"Muslim Conversion and Canon Law", in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of Medieval Canon Law, Berkeley 1980, ed Stephan Kuttner and Kenneth Pennington (Città del Vaticano, 1985), pp 321-32 [reprinted in No 65].

(with R. Denys Pringle:) "La Fève: A Crusader Castle in the Jezreel Valley,” Israel Exploration Journal 35 (1985), 164-79 [reprinted in No 65].

"L'Officium Robarie di Genova: un tentativo di coesistere con la violenza," Archivio Storico Italiano 143 (1985), 331-72.

"The Arab Conquests and Agriculture: A Seventh-Century Apocalypse, Satellite Imagery, and Palynology," Asian and African Studies 19 (1985), 1-15.

Ed, with Gabriella Airaldi: I comuni italiani nel Regno Crociato di Gerusalemme. Atti del colloquio di Gerusalemme, 24-28 maggio 1984. Collana storica di fonti e studi diretta da Geo Pistarino, 48. Genoa, 1986. 695 pp

"Genoa's Golden Inscription in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher: A Case for the Defence," in I comuni italiani nel Regno Crociato di Gerusalemme, pp 317-35 [reprinted in No 65].

Ed: Eliyahu Ashtor, East-West Trade in the Medieval Mediterranean. Variorum: London, 1986. 344 pp

"Ungarische Muslime in Jerusalem im Jahre 1217," Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 40 (1986), 325-27 [reprinted in No 65].

"Aerial Israel: A Historian's Infatuation," Ariel 65 (1986), 58-71.

Ed: The Crusaders in their Kingdom, 1099-1291. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi: Jerusalem, 1987. 283  pp [in Hebrew].

"Conversion to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam in the Kingdom of Jerusalem," in The Crusaders in their Kingdom, pp 93-100 [in Hebrew].

"La mentalidad mercantil en una época de depresión," in El mundo mediterráneo de la edad media, ed Blanca Garí (Barcelona, 1987), pp 127-55 [translation of Merchants in Crisis, Ch 1].

ed, with AL Udovitch: The Medieval Levant. Studies in Memory of Eliyahu Ashtor (1914-1984) = Asian and African Studies 22 (1988), 1-291.

(with Etan Kohlberg:) "A Melkite Physician in Frankish Jerusalem and Ayyubid Damascus: Muwaffaq al-Din Ya`qub b. Siqlab," in The Medieval Levant, pp 113-26 [reprinted in No         65].

"A Dangerous Case of Conversion at Khisfin in the Late Sixth Century," in Jews, Samaritans and Christians in Byzantine Palestine, ed David Jacoby and Yoram Tsafrir (Jerusalem, 1988), pp 238-41 [in Hebrew].

"The Frankish Period," in The Samaritans, ed Alan D Crown (Tübingen, 1989), pp 82-94 [reprinted in No 65].

ed, with Trude Dothan and Shmuel Safrai: Commerce in Palestine throughout the Ages. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi: Jerusalem, 1990. 337 pp [in Hebrew].

"The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant," in Muslims under Latin Rule,1100-1300, ed James M Powell (Princeton, 1990), pp 135-74 [reprinted in No 65 and in The Crusades: The Essential Readings, ed Thomas F Madden (Oxford, 2002), pp 233-64].

(with Muhammad al-Hajjuj:) "Muslim Peasants in Frankish Palestine: Family Size and Personal  Names," Pe`amim 45 (Autumn 1990), pp 45-57 [in Hebrew].

"Joshua Prawer (1917-1990), Historian of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem," Mediterranean Historical Review 5 (1990), 107-16. Hebrew version in: In Memoriam Joshua Prawer, Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Jerusalem, 1992), pp 13-23.     

Looking Twice at the Land of Israel. Aerial Photographs of 1917-1918 and 1987-91. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi and Israel Ministry of Defense: Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, 1991. 239 pp [in Hebrew].

Crociata e missione. L'Europa incontro all'Islam. Jouvence: Rome, 1991. 302 pp (translation of No 35).

Ed: The Horns of Hattin. Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades, Jerusalem and Haifa, 2-6 July 1987. Yad  Izhak Ben-Zvi and Variorum: Jerusalem and Aldershot, 1992. 368 pp

"The Battle of Hattin Revisited," in The Horns of Hattin, pp 190-207 [reprinted in No 65; Hebrew version in Cathedra 61 (September 1991), 95-112].

Ed: "The Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem - The First European Colonial Society? A  Symposium," in The Horns of Hattin, pp 341-66.

Ed: Eliyahu Ashtor, Technology, Industry and Trade. The Levant versus Europe, 1250 -1500. Variorum: London, 1992. 331 pp

"De Iudeis et Sarracenis. On the Categorization of Muslims in Medieval Canon Law," in Studia in honorem eminentissimi cardinalis Alphonsi M. Stickler, ed RI Card Castillo Lara (Rome, 1992), pp 207-13 [reprinted in No 65].

The Franks in the Levant, 11th to 14th Centuries. Variorum: Aldershot, 1993. 322  pp

"Introduction" to A. Gurevich, The Categories of Medieval Culture, translated into Hebrew by P Kriksunov (Jerusalem, 1993), pp 7-8.

(with Muhammad al-Hajjuj:) "Muslim Villagers of the Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem: Some Demographic and Onomastic Data," in Itinéraires d'Orient. Hommages à Claude Cahen, ed Raoul Curiel and Rika Gyselen [=Res Orientales, vol 6], (Bures-sur-Yvette, 1994), pp 145-56 updated version of No 57; reprinted in No 140].

"Raising Funds for a Frankish Cathedral: The Appeal of Bishop Radulph of Sebaste," in Entrepreneurship and the Transformation of the Economy (10th-20th Centuries). Essays  in Honour of Herman Van der Wee, ed Paul Klep and Eddy van Cauwenberghe (Leuven, 1994),  pp 443-55 [reprinted in No 140].   

Ed: Lydie Jeiteles-Kraus, Eine Prager Liebe. Jerusalem, 1995. 48 pp

"The Arab Conquest and the Settled Land -- The Testimony of a Seventh-Century Apocalypse," in Frontier, Town, and the Transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages,  ed Michael Toch and Doron Mendels (Jerusalem, 1995), pp 9-21 [updated Hebrew version of No 42].

(with Eliezer Stern:) “Un nuovo sguardo sul quartiere genovese di Acri,” in Mediterraneo genovese – Storia e architettura. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Genova, 29 ottobre 1992, ed Gabriella Airaldi and Paolo Stringa (Genoa, 1995), pp 11-28 [partially reprinted in No 140].

(with Eliezer Stern:) "A Vaulted East-West Street in Acre's Genoese Quarter?" `Atiqot 26 (1995), 105-11 [reprinted in No 140].

"Latin in Ninth-Century Mar Sabas?" Byzantion 65 (1995), 252-54.

"Sobre la génesis de la Fazienda de Ultra Mar,” Anales de Historia Antigua y Medieval  28 (1995), 131-36 [reprinted in No 140].

"Benvenutus Grapheus of Jerusalem, an Oculist in the Era of the Crusades," Korot. The Israel Journal of the History of Medicine and Science 11 (1995), 14-41 [reprinted in No.140].

Ed: Studies in the History of Popular Culture. Shazar Center for Jewish History: Jerusalem, 1996. 444 pp [in Hebrew].

Ed, with Moshe Maoz: The Palestinian National Movement: From Confrontation to Reconciliation? Israel Ministry of Defense: Tel Aviv, 1996. 423 pp [in Hebrew].

"Expulsion as an Issue of World History," Journal of World History 7 (1996), 165-80 [Hebrew translation in  Alpayyim 11 (1996), 9-22].

(with Etan Kohlberg:) "The Intercultural Career of Theodore of Antioch," in Intercultural Contacts in the Medieval Mediterranean. Studies in Honour of David Jacoby, ed Benjamin Arbel (Tel Aviv and London, 1996), pp 164-76 [=Mediterranean Historical Review 10 (1995), 164-76] [reprinted in No 140]

"The Frankish Period: 'Cain's Mountain,'" in Yoqne`am I: The Late Periods, ed Amnon Ben-Tor, Miriam Avissar and Y Portugali, Qedem Reports 3 (Jerusalem, 1996), pp 3-7 [reprinted in No 140].

"Croisade et jihad vus par l'ennemi: une étude des perceptions mutuelles des motivations," in  Autour de la Première Croisade. Actes du Colloque de la 'Society for  the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East,'  Clermont-Ferrand, 22-25 juin 1995, ed Michel Balard (Paris, 1996), pp 345-55 [reprinted in No 140].

Ed, with Jonathan Riley-Smith and Rudolf Hiestand: Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer. Variorum: Aldershot, 1997. xx + 276 pp

"A Western Survey of Saladin's Forces at the Siege of Acre," in Montjoie, pp 113-22 [reprinted in No 140].

"Una nuova fonte per l'incursione musulmana del 934-935 e le sue implicazioni per la storia genovese," in Oriente e Occidente fra medioevo ed età moderna: Studi in onore di Geo Pistarino, ed Laura Balletto (Genoa, 1997), pp 605-16.

"Laying the Foundation Stones for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 24 July 1918," in The History of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ed Shaul Katz and Michael Heyd (Jerusalem, 1997), pp 90-119 [in Hebrew].

"Soziologische Geschichtsschreibung: Jakob Katz als Schüler Karl Mannheims," in Jüdischer Almanach 1998/5758 des Leo Baeck Instituts, ed Jakob Hessing and Alfred Bodenheimer (Frankfurt/M, 1997), pp 79-86.

"L'appel de Clermont vu de Jérusalem," in Le Concile de Clermont de 1095 et l'Appel à  la Croisade. Actes du Colloque Universitaire International de Clermont-Ferrand (23-25  juin 1995)  (Rome, 1997), pp 287-94.

"Some New Sources on Palestinian Muslims before and during the Crusades," in Die Kreuzfahrerstaaten als multikulturelle Gesellschaft, ed Hans Eberhard Mayer, Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, Kolloquium 37 (Munich, 1997), pp 129-40 [reprinted in No.140].

"The Outer Walls of Frankish Acre," `Atiqot 31 (1997), 157-80 [reprinted in No 140; abridged, updated Hebrew version in Qadmoniot  33 (2000), 13-17].

“Benvenuto Grapheo da Gerusalemme - da Salerno – da Montpellier  e la sua Ars probatissima oculorum,” in Le vie del Mediterraneo: Idee, uomini, oggetti (secoli  XI-XVI), ed Gabriella Airaldi (Genoa, 1997), pp 7-22 [Italian version of No 76].

"Multidirectional Conversion in the Frankish Levant," in Varieties of Religious Conversion in the Middle Ages, ed James Muldoon (Gainesville, 1997), pp 190-99 [updated version of No 49; reprinted in No 140].

Ed, with R.J.Zwi Werblowsky: Sacred Space: Shrine, City, Land. Studies in Memory of  Joshua Prawer. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, and Macmillan: Jerusalem and London, 1998. 348 pp
"Intellectual Activities in a Holy City: Jerusalem in the Twelfth Century," in Sacred Space: Shrine, City, Land, pp 127-39 [reprinted in No 140].

"The Forcible Baptisms of 1096: History and Historiography," in Forschungen zur Reichs-, Papst- und Landesgeschichte. Peter Herde zum 65. Geburtstag von Freunden, Schülern und Kollegen dargebracht, ed Karl Borchardt and Enno Bünz, 2 vols (Stuttgart, 1998), 1:187-200.

"Crusade Historians and the Massacres of 1096," Jewish History 12 (1998), 11-31.

"Latins and Oriental Christians in the Frankish Levant," in Sharing the Sacred: Contacts and Conflicts in the Religious History of the Holy Land. First-Fifteenth Centuries, ed Arieh  Kofsky and Guy G. Stroumsa (Jerusalem, 1998), pp 209-22 [reprinted in No 140].

"The Tractatus de locis et statu sancte terre ierosolimitane," in The Crusades and their Sources: Essays presented to Bernard Hamilton, ed John France and William G. Zajac (Aldershot, 1998), pp 111-33 [reprinted in No 140].

"A Twelfth-Century Description of the Jerusalem Hospital," in The Military Orders: Welfare and Warfare, ed Helen Nicholson (Aldershot, 1998), pp 3-26 [reprinted in No.140].

The Changing Land between the Jordan and the Sea: Aerial photographs from 1917 to the Present. Yad Ben-Zvi and Israel Ministry of Defense: Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, 1999. 208 pp (updated English version of No 59).

"Wars as Turning Points in History," in Six Days - Thirty Years. New Perspectives on the Six Day War, ed Asher Susser  (Tel Aviv, 1999), pp 17-28 [in Hebrew].

“On the Origins of the Earliest Laws of Frankish Jerusalem: The Canons of Nablus, 1120,” Speculum 74 (1999), 310-35 [reprinted in No 140].

"On Six Maps and One Aerial Photograph," in Studies in Geography and History in Honour of Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, ed Yossi Ben-Artzi, Israel Bartal, Elchanan Reiner (Jerusalem, 1999), pp 29-45 [in Hebrew].

"La Via sancti sepulchri come tramite di cultura araba in Europa," in Itinerari medievali e identità europea. Atti del Congresso internazionale di Parma, 27-28 febbraio 1998, ed Roberto Greci  (Bologna, 1999), pp 181-201 [reprinted in No 140].

“Il motivo della crociata nel pensiero politico israeliano,” in Verso Gerusalemme. II Convegno Internazionale nel IX Centenario della I Crociata (1099-1999). Bari, 11-13 gennaio 1999, ed Franco Cardini, Mariagraziella Belloli, Benedetto Vetere (Lecce, 1999), pp 135-50.

"The Multilateral Disputation at the Court of the Grand Qan Möngke, 1254," in The Majlis. Interreligious Encounters in Medieval Islam, ed Hava Lazarus-Yafeh, Mark R. Cohen, Sasson Somekh, Sidney H Griffith, Studies in Arabic Language and Literature 4 (Wiesbaden, 1999), pp 162-83.

Ed, with Avinoam Danin: Remote Sensing: The Use of Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images in Israel Studies. Yad Ben-Zvi: Jerusalem 2000. 260 pp [in Hebrew].

(with Ronnie Ellenblum:) "The Contribution of Aerial Photography to the Study of the Frankish Period (1099-1291),” in Remote Sensing, pp 167-72 [in Hebrew].

"Aerial Photography on the Palestine Front during World War I," in Remote Sensing, pp 229-35 [in Hebrew].

“Reflections on Landscape and History,” in Landscapes of Israel. Azaria Alon Jubilee Volume, ed Gabriel  Barkay and Ely Schiller (Jerusalem, 2000), pp 33-36 [in Hebrew; reprinted in Motar 11 (2004), 5-8].

Ed, with Michel Balard and Jonathan Riley-Smith: Dei gesta per Francos. Etudes sur les croisades dédiées à Jean Richard. Ashgate: Aldershot, 2001. 434 pp

(with Nurith Kenaan-Kedar:) “The Significance of a Twelfth-Century Sculptural Group: Le Retour du Croisé,” in Dei gesta per Francos (Aldershot, 2001), pp 29-44.

“Eine Luftaufnahme von Schumachers Ausgrabungen in Megiddo,” in  Das Erwachen Palästinas im 19. Jahrhundert. Alex Carmel zum 70. Geburtstag, ed Yaron Perry and Erik Petry, Judentum und Christentum vol 9 (Stuttgart, 2001), pp 13-19.
“Convergences of Oriental Christian, Muslim and Frankish Worshippers: The Case of Saydnaya and the Knights Templar,” in The Crusades and the Military Orders. Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity, ed Zsolt Hunyadi and József Laszlovszky (Budapest, 2001), pp 89-100.

(with Milka Levy-Rubin:) “A Spanish Source on Mid-Ninth-Century Mar Saba and a Neglected Sabaite Martyr,” in The Sabaite Heritage in the Orthodox Church from the Fifth Century to the Present, ed Joseph Patrich, Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta 98 (Leuven, 2001), pp 63-72.

“Farewell Message by the Outgoing President,” in Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East. Bulletin 21 (2001), 2-3.

Ed, with Jonathan Riley-Smith: Crusades 1 (2002), 2 (2003), 3 (2004), 4 (2005), 5 (2006)

"Marc Bloch: Between his Life and Research," introduction to the Hebrew translation of Apologie pour l'histoire et Métier d'historien  (Jerusalem, 2002), pp 7-24.
“The Samaritans under Frankish Rule,” in The Samaritans, ed Ephraim Stern and Hanan Eshel  (Jerusalem, 2002), pp 591-601 [updated Hebrew version of No 54].

“A Second Incarnation in Frankish Jerusalem,” in The Experience of Crusading, vol 2: Defining the Crusader Kingdom, ed Peter W Edbury and Jonathan Phillips (Cambridge, 2003), pp 79-92 [reprinted in No 140].

“A Hebrew Inscription from Gaza in the Cemetery at Rishon le-Zion,” in Studies in the History  of Eretz-Israel presented to Yehuda Ben- Porat, ed Yehoshua Ben-Arieh and Elchanan Reiner(Jerusalem, 2003), pp 588-98 [in Hebrew].

"The Jerusalem Massacre of July 1099 in the Western Historiography of the Crusades," Crusades 3 (2004), 15-75.

“The Crusader Motif in Israeli Political Discourse,” Alpayyim 26 (2004), 9-40 [enlarged, updated Hebrew version of No 105].

"Again: Genoa's Golden Inscription and King Baldwin I's Privilege of 1104," in Chemins d'outre-mer: Études sur la Méditerranée offertes à Michel Balard, ed Damien Coulon, Catherine Otten-Froux, Paule Pagès and Dominique Valérian, 2 vols (Paris, 2004), pp 495-502.

Holy Men in a Holy Land: Christian, Muslim and Jewish Religiosity in the Near East at  the Time of the Crusades. Hayes Robinson Lecture Series, 9. Royal Holloway, University of London, 2005.  24 pp

"Structural Primordiality or Cumulative Substances," a reply to AB Yehoshua, Alpayyim 28 (2005), 84-86 [in  Hebrew].

“Dimensioni comparative del pellegrinaggio medievale,” in Fra Roma e Gerusalemme nel Medioevo. Paesaggi umani ed ambientali del pellegrinaggio meridionale. Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Studi, Salerno - Cava de' Tirreni – Ravello, 26-29 ottobre 2000, ed Massimo Oldoni, 3 vols (Salerno, 2005), 1: 255-77.

(with Daniella Talmon-Heller) "Did Muslim Survivors of the 1099 Massacre of Jerusalem Settle in Damascus? The True Origins of the al-Salihiyya Suburb," Al-Masaq 17 (2005), 203-7.

"The Voyages of Giuàn-Ovadiah in Syria and Iraq and the Enigma of his Conversion," in Giovanni-Ovadiah da Oppido, proselito, viaggiatore e musicista dell'età normanna. Atti Del  convegno internazionale, Oppido Lucano 28-30 marzo 2004, ed Antonio De Rosa And Mauro Perani (Florence, 2005), pp 133-47.
"The Fourth Crusade's Second Front," in Urbs Capta: The Fourth Crusade and its Consequences, ed Angeliki Laiou, Réalités Byzantines 10 (Paris, 2005), pp 89-110.

Ed, with Alon Kadish, The Few Against The Many? Studies on the Balance of Forces in the Battles of Judas Maccabaeus and Israel's War of Independence. Magnes Press: Jerusalem, 2005. 227 pp [in Hebrew].

(with Rudolf Schieffer:) "Geleitwort," in Hebräische Berichte über die Judenverfolgungen während des Ersten Kreuzzugs, ed Eva Haverkamp, MGH. Hebräische Texte aus dem mittelalterlichen Deutschland, 1 (Hanover, 2005), pp vii-viii. (Introductory remarks to a new series launched by the Monumenta Germaniae Historica and the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities).

Apocrypha: Writings on Current Affairs, 1954-2004. Modi`in, 2006. 228 pp (in Hebrew, English, German and Arabic).

Ed, with Nicolas Faucherre and Jean Mesqui, L'architecture en Terre sainte au temps de Saint Louis = Bulletin Monumental 164 (2006), 3-120.

"Les murailles d'Acre franque," in L'architecture, pp 45-52 (updated and abridged version of No 90).

"L'enceinte de la ville franque de Jaffa," in L'architecture, pp 105-7.

"Jacob Katz as Karl Mannheim's Disciple," in The Past and Beyond. Studies in History and Philosophy Presented to Elazar Weinryb, ed Amir Horowitz, Ora Limor, Ram Ben-Shalom and  Avriel Bar-Levav(Ra`anana, 2006), pp 209-17 (in Hebrew; enlarged version of No 87).

"From Religious to Political Messianism: On the History of the German Templers," in Chronicle of a Utopia—The Templers in the Holy Land, 1868-1948, ed Gania Dolev (Tel Aviv,  2006), pp 17-36 of the Hebrew part, pp 10-25 of the English part. [Section of a Hebrew-written seminar paper submitted to Professor JL Talmon, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1965. English translation prepared by editor].

"Some Reflections on Maps, Crusading and Logistics," in Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades, ed John H Pryor (Aldershot, 2006), pp 159-83.

Franks, Muslims and Oriental Christians in the Latin Levant: Studies in Frontier Acculturation. Ashgate: Aldershot, 2006. 328 pp

"Nurith Kenaan-Kedar as Joseph Gantner's Disciple," in Pictorial Languages and Their Meanings. Liber Amicorum in Honor of Nurith Kenaan-Kedar, ed Christine B Verzar and Gil Fishhof (Tel Aviv, 2006), pp xix-xxvi.

(with Reuven Amitai:) "Franks in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1047," in Quel mar che la tera inghirlanda. In ricordo di Marco Tangheroni, ed Franco Cardini and Maria Luisa Ceccarelli Lemut (Rome, 2007), pp 465-68.