Professor Jaroslav Folda

Contact Details

Department of Art
University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3405


When and where did you initially develop an interest in the history of the crusades and/or the Latin East?

Who or what sparked your enthusiasm for the subject?

In my undergraduate program at Princeton University, I had the opportunity to take courses in Medieval History and Medieval Art History with Joseph Strayer and Kurt Weitzmann respectively.  While taking those courses in 1960-1961 I encountered the Crusades and the context in Medieval art out of which Crusader art developed, for the first time in an academic setting.  Finding the Crusades to be quite fascinating for many reasons, I elected to do my senior thesis in 1961-1962 in the History Department on the Problem of the Diversion of the Fourth Crusade, working with Bennett D. Hill, who was at that time finishing his doctoral dissertation on the Cistercians in the 13th century.  While pursuing my work on this study I also had the good fortune to meet and get to know Harry W. Hazard, former editor working with K.M. Setton on the publication of the six volume, History of the Crusades.  Harry Hazard lived in Princeton at that time, and his son was also a member of my Princeton class.  Along with Bennett Hill, Harry advised me on a number of issues pertaining to the Fourth Crusade, and it was very exciting to be shown proofs of volume II of the History of the Crusades that he was working on. 

As I was considering my future career during my senior year, Harry Hazard and Kurt Weitzmann in particular advised me about where I could continue my studies.  It was Harry who made it possible for me to meet Brian Tierney from Cornell, then appointed at the Institute for Advanced Study, and Kurt Weitzmann, who introduced me to Adolf Katzenellenbogen at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.  As a result of my discussions with these scholars, I applied to and entered the graduate art history program at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1962.

In 1963 Weitzmann published his first major article on Crusader Icons in the Art Bulletin, which I found very remarkable.  In my second year of graduate school at Hopkins, while taking a seminar in medieval manuscript illumination with Dorothy Miner at the Walters Art Gallery [as it was known then, now the Walters Art Museum], I discovered the two illustrated William of Tyre manuscripts in the Walters collection.  With them as my inspiration, I gradually identified a PhD dissertation topic that dealt with the history of the Crusades, and all the extant illustrated William of Tyre manuscripts known to scholarship.

When it came time for me to choose my PhD dissertation project, my Departmental supervisor, Adolf Katzenellenbogen, had died.  With the help of Dorothy Miner, for whom I worked as a research assistant at the Walters, I proposed the idea of studying all the William of Tyre, History of Outremer, illustrated manuscripts.  But before I could proceed with this topic, I needed to contact Hugo Buchthal, then professor of art history at the Institute of Fine Arts, NYU, to find out if he planned to continue the work he had published in 1957 in his pioneering book, Miniature Painting in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.  Buchthal responded by saying that he was at that point working on other projects and encouraged me to proceed with my project.  He also sent me the notes he had made on illustrated William of Tyre manuscripts in European collections while doing research on his 1957 book.  The result of this contact was that Hugo Buchthal became my de facto adviser on the dissertation project, a responsibility he took on purely out of personal interest and his deep friendship for my former professor, Adolf Katzenellenbogen.  Although Buchthal was never officially on my dissertation committee, he read every word of my study and gave me the benefit of his wonderful knowledge on manuscript illumination in Europe and the Near East.  My other extraordinarily generous mentor was Dorothy Miner who served as my internal adviser on the dissertation committee at Johns Hopkins along with various other art history professors, including Robert Branner and JECT White.


Please provide details of your Higher Education, including dates, institution(s) and the name(s) of your research supervisors.

  • Princeton University, AB “cum laude in historia”, June, 1962,
  • Senior Thesis: “The Fourth Crusade” Johns Hopkins University, PhD “with distinction,” November, 1968
  • Doctoral Dissertation: “The Illustrations in Manuscripts of the History of Outremer by William of Tyre”

Career History

Please provide details of your academic career history, including confirmation of your current institutional affiliation and contact details.

  • University of North Carolina: Instructor (History of Art), Department of Art, fall, 1968
  • Assistant Professor, Department of Art, 1968 - 72
  • Associate Professor, Department of Art, 1972 - 78
  • Professor of the History of Art, 1978 - 96
  • Chairman, Department of Art, 1983 - 87
  • N Ferebee Taylor Professor of the History of Art, 1996 - 2008

Influences and Methodologies

What ideas and/or methodologies have informed your approach to your research?

Many ideas and methodologies have informed my approach to my research.  In terms of historical ideas and methods, I have particularly found the works of several scholars to be important.  But my interest in history began effectively when I was a sophomore in secondary school, at the Paris American High School, and my teacher there was Horace Harvey.  Harvey first taught me how important it was to become a thinking individual, to think critically and rigorously, and he began the process of teaching me to write clearly and effectively.  In 1956 I won an academic prize from Professor Harvey.  The prize was a copy of Plutarch’s Lives, and the citation reads, in part, as follows: “This book is given … to Jaroslav Thayer Folda III.  It represents his persistent toil toward clear, precise and meaningful expression in History at the Paris American High School.”

When I went to college I eventually concentrated my studies in History, and the main scholars I studied with were Joseph Strayer, E. Harris Harbison, Bennett D Hill, and Harry W Hazard in history, and Bernard Fagin, Anthony Raubitschek, and Frank Bourne in Classics.  It was from these men that my ideas and my ideals of how to study history developed.  The history they taught me included ancient and medieval history, institutional history, the history of ideas, cultural history, and the history of the Crusades.

In Art History, my study really began with Kurt Weitzmann at Princeton, along with Robert Koch, both of whom taught Medieval Art.  In graduate school it was Adolf Katzenellenbogen, Dorothy Miner, Philippe Verdier, Robert Branner, John White and Hugo Buchthal who taught me how to do research in art history, how to think art historically.  This meant that I was most heavily influenced by Erwin Panofsky’s approach to iconography and iconology, disseminated by members of the Warburg school, and the stylistic analysis and history of style exemplified by these scholars and others such as Otto Demus and Ernst Kitzinger.  Needless to say, as my career developed other scholars have proved to be important in expanding and developing my research methodology, but these were the formative scholars.

Research Outlook

What do you consider to be the most important avenues for future research in the field of crusader studies?

There are many opportunities for future research in the field of Crusader Studies.  In the area of the history of the Crusades in the Near East, attention has been lavished on the major crusades, but lesser expeditions deserve new attention.  In the Latin East, the history of the Crusader States in the early 12th century is an area of interest with ‘new’ sources as well as the Latin Empire in Constantinople and the Crusaders on Cyprus.  These ‘new’ sources are written documents other than the traditional chronicles, etc.   New attention can also be given to the County of Edessa, the Principality, and the County of Tripoli from this approach. 

One of the interesting developments in recent years is the relationship of the Crusaders in the Holy Land with the Muslim East and the Mongols farther afield.  The far eastern and Muslim impact on the Crusaders culturally, militarily, and perhaps even diplomatically deserves to be further explored.

In the history of Crusader art the importance of the artistic traditions of the local Christians other than the Greek Orthodox need to be researched more vigorously, especially in terms of icon painting, miniature painting, frescoes and mosaics.  In other media, it is the fields of the minor arts, such as various types of decorated glass, metalwork, textiles, and carving in ivory, that new research is needed to identify Crusader art as distinct from Muslim, local Christian, or Byzantine work.  Patronage continues to be a major issue and the identification of patrons is one key issue.  The role of women as patrons is important, as is the possibility of corporate patronage from confraternities, the military orders and even guilds.  When it comes to architecture, there is no doubt that work in the northern Crusader states continues to be understudied.  And of course, the archaeological investigation of major buildings such as the churches of Notre Dame at Tortosa and the cathedral of St John in Beirut, and the castle of Margat remain major desiderata.

Outside of Syria/Palestine the art of the Latin Empire in Constantinople remains very mysterious.  The Crusader developments in architecture, painting and sculpture in Cyprus require a fresh synthetic study after over a century of specialized studies with much greater understanding of the Byzantine developments.

Research Output

Please provide details of your research output, including publications and other media as appropriate.

Books and Edited Volumes

  1. Crusader Manuscript Illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre: 1275-1291 (Princeton, 1976), 231 pp , 299 pls.
  2. (contributor, pp 251-288, and assisting editor) KM Setton, ed, A History of the Crusades, vol IV, HW Hazard, ed, The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States (Madison, 1977)
  3. (editor) Crusader Art in the Twelfth Century, British Archeological Reports, International Series, vol 152 (Oxford, 1982), 269 pp
  4. (chairman, editorial committee) Hugo Buchthal, Art of the Mediterranean World: AD 100 to 1400 (Washington, DC, 1982), 207 pp , 367 pls.
  5. The Nazareth Capitals and the Crusader Shrine of the Annunciation, College Art Association Monograph Series, vol XLII (University Park and London, 1986), 101 pp , 77 pls.
  6. The Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 1098-1187, Cambridge, New York and Melbourne:  Cambridge University Press, 1995, xxx + 672 pp , 41 color plates, 735 halftones, 9 maps, 10 figures.
  7. Crusader Art in the Holy Land, from the Third Crusade to the fall of Acre: 1187 – 1291, Cambridge, New York and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2005, lxxvi + 714 pp , 11 color plates, 415 halftones, 10 maps, plus 501 black and white illustrations of Crusader manuscripts on CD.
  8. Crusader Art, 1099-1291, accepted by Lund Humphries, London, production in progress.

Exhibition Catalogues

  1. "Helena, Mother of Constantinus Magnus," entry 24 in Ancient Portraits, Ackland Art Center, April 5--May 17, 1970
  2. Author of 16 entries and co-editor of A Medieval Treasury from Southeastern Collections, Ackland Art Center, April 4--May 21, 1971, 77 pp
  3. "Emperor Constantinus Magnus (AD 306-337)," entry 73 in Small Sculpture in Bronze from the Classical World, Ackland Art Center, March 7-April 18, 1976.
  4. "The Crusader Period and the Church of Saint Anne at Sepphoris,” in Sepphoris in Galilee:  Crosscurrents of Culture, Rebecca M Nagy, et al, eds, North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 1996, pp 101-107.
  5. "Crusader Art," The Glory of Byzantium:  Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, AD  843-1261, HC Evans and WD Wixom, eds, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1997, pp 388-391 (essay), and entries 258-262, pp 392-397, entry 264, 398-399, entry 318, p 482, entry 332, pp 496-497.
  6. "Les Manuscrits enluminés dans les états de la Terre Sainte," Les Croisades, L'Orient et l'Occident d'Urbain II à Saint Louis: 1096-1270, M Rey-Delqué, ed, Milan and Toulouse:  Electa, 1997, pp 299-305 (published in both a French and an Italian edition).
  7. "L'Arte dei Crociati e il Pellegrinaggio nei Luoghi Santi," In Terrasanta, Dalla Crociata ala Custodia dei Luoghi Santi, ed M Piccirillo, OFM, Milan, Palazzo Reale: Skira Artifice, 2000, pp 35-43 (essay), and entries on pp 102, 106, 241, 248, 249.
  8. Entries on eight Crusader Icons: No 214, Diptych, No 216, Triptych, No 223, Two-sided icon, No 229, Icon with Saint Sergios, No 230, Two-sided icon with the Virgin Hodegetria, No 231, Icon with Saints George Diasorites and Theodore, No 232, Icon with Saints Theodore and Demetrios, No 235, Iconostasis beam, Exhibition Catalogue for Byzantium: Faith and Power, Byzantine Art 1261-1557, ed Helen C Evans, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/New Haven and London: Yale University Press, (2004): pp 355-356, 357-358, 365-366, 374, 374-375, 376, 377, 379-381.
  9. Eight entries on Crusader Icons, for the catalogue: A Drandaki, ed, Pilgrimage to Sinai: Treasures from the Holy Monastery of St Catherine, Athens: Benaki Museum, 2004, pp 88-90, 91-93, 108-111, 121-123, 124-127, 128-130, 134-138, and 139-143.
  10. Eight entries for Crusader icons in the catalogue, Trésors du Monastère Sainte-Catherine, Mont Sinaï, Egypte, ed Helen C Evans, Martigny, Switzerland: Fondation Pierre Gianadda, 2005, pp 64-66, 67-69, 84-87, 97-99, 100-103, 104-106, 110-114, 115-119.
  11. Two Essays ["What is Crusader Art?" and "Scriptoria and Workshops, Scribes and Painters in Crusader Syria/Palestine in the 13th Century"], and an Introduction and Five Catalogue Entries [on 5 Crusader Manuscripts:  London, BL, Egerton MS 1139, Paris, BNF, MS fr 2628, Dijon, Bibl Mun, MS 562, Brussels, Bibl Roy, MS 10175, and Perugia, Bibl Capit MS 6] for the Mannheim Exhibition Catalogue: Saladin und die Kreuzfahrer, eds A Wieczorek, et al, Mannheim and Mainz, 2005, pp 176-189, 204-215, for the essays, and pp 393-394, 404-407, for the introduction and entries (published October 2005).


  1. "The Fourth Crusade 1201-1203: Some Reconsiderations," Byzantinoslavica, 26 (1965), pp 277-290."
  2. "A Crusader Manuscript from Antioch," Atti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia, ser III, Rendiconti, 42 (1969-1970), pp 283-298.
  3. "Manuscripts of the History of Outremer by William of Tyre: A Handlist," Scriptorium, 27 (1973), pp 90-95.                                     
  4. "Three Crusader Capitals in Jerusalem," Levant, X (1978), pp 139-155.   
  5. "Crusader Painting in the 13th Century: The State of the Question," Il medio oriente e l'occidente nell'arte del XIII secolo, ed H Belting, Atti del XXIV Congresso Internazionale di Storia dell'Arte, vol 2 (Bologna, 1982), pp 103-115.                                                                      
  6. (with Pamela French and Pierre Coupel), "Crusader Frescoes at Crac des Chevaliers and Marqab Castle," Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 36 (1982), pp 177-230.
  7. "A Fourth Capital from the Chapel of the Repose in Jerusalem," Levant, XV (1983), pp 194-195.
  8. "Problems of the Crusader Sculptures at the Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth," The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades, Studies in Medieval Culture: XXI (Kalamazoo, 1986), pp 133-144.
  9. "The Church of Saint Anne," Biblical Archaeologist, 54 (1991), pp 88-96.
  10. "Reflections on Art in Crusader Jerusalem about the Time of the Second Crusade, c 1140-c 1150," The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed M Gervers, New York, 1992, pp 171-182.
  11. "The Saint Marina Icon:  Maniera Cypria, Lingua Franca, or Crusader Art?"  Four Icons in the Menil Collection, ed B Davezac, Menil Collection Monographs, I, Houston and Austin, 1992, pp 106-133.
  12. "A Twelfth-Century Prayerbook for the Queen of Jerusalem," Medieval Perspectives, VIII (1993), pp 1-14.
  13. "Images of Queen Melisende in Manuscripts of William of Tyre's History of Outremer, 1250-1300," Gesta, XXXII (1993), pp 97-112.
  14. (with P Edbury), "Two Thirteenth-Century Manuscripts of Crusader Legal Texts from Saint-Jean d'Acre," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, LVII (1994), pp 243-254.
  15. "The Kahn and Mellon Madonnas:  Icon or Altarpiece?, Byzantine East, Latin West:  Art-Historical Studies in Honor of Kurt Weitzmann, C Moss and K Kiefer, eds, Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1995, pp 501-510.
  16. "Art in the Latin East, 1098-1291," Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, J Riley-Smith, ed, Oxford New York, Oxford University Press, 1995, pp 141-159.
  17. "Crusader Art in the Kingdom of Cyprus, 1275-1291:  Reflections on the State of the Question," Cyprus and the Crusades, N Coureas and J Riley-Smith, eds, Nicosia:  Cyprus Research Centre, 1995, pp 209-237.
  18. "Crusader Art in the Twelfth Century:  Reflections on Christian Multiculturalism in the Levant," Mediterranean Historical Review, Studies in Honour of David Jacoby, 10 (1995), pp 80-91, reprinted in Intercultural Contacts in the Medieval Mediterranean, B Arbel, ed, London, Portland OR:  Frank Cass, 1996, pp 80-91.
  19. "The Hospitaller Master in Paris and Acre:  Some Reconsiderations in Light of New Evidence," Essays in Honor of Lilian MC Randall, E Burin, ed, Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, 54 (1996), pp 51-59, 269-272.
  20. "Crusader Art, A Multicultural Phenomenon:  Historiographical Reflections," Autour de la Première Croisade, M Balard, ed, Actes du Colloque de la Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East (Clermont-Ferrand, 22-25 Juin 1995, Série Byzantina Sorbonensia, 14, Paris:  Publications de la Sorbonne, 1996, pp 609-615.
  21. "Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS lat 5334 and the Origins of the Hospitaller Master," Montjoie:  Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, BZ Kedar, J Riley-Smith, R Hiestand, eds, London: Variorum, 1997, pp 177-187.
  22. “Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulchre through the Eyes of Crusader Pilgrims,” Jewish Art, 23/24(1997/1998), pp 158-164.
  23. “The South Transept Façade of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem: An Aspect of Rebuilding Zion,” The Crusades and Their Sources: Studies Presented to Bernard Hamilton, ed J France, London: Ashgate, 1998, pp 239-257.
  24. “Icon or Altarpiece? Reflections on the Kahn and Mellon Madonnas,” Ideas, from the National Humanities Center, 6 (1999), pp 42-55.  This article is now (January 2000) also published in electronic format on the National Humanities Center website ( with all color reproductions and links to the National Gallery of Art with detailed reproductions of the two main panel paintings included on their website.
  25. “Art in the Latin East, 1098-1291,” Oxford History of the Crusades, J Riley-Smith, ed, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp 138-154.
  26. “Problems in the Iconography of the Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land, 1098-1291/1917-1997,” Image and Belief: Studies in Celebration of the 80th Anniversary of the Index of Christian Art, ed C Hourihane, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999, pp 11-18.
  27. "Reflections on the Mellon Madonna as a Work of Crusader Art: Links with Crusader Art on Cyprus," Dei gesta per Francos, Festschrift in Honour of Jean Richard, eds M Balard (Paris), BZ Kedar (Jerusalem), and J Riley-Smith (Cambridge), Aldershot/Brookfield: Ashgate, 2001, pp 361-371.
  28. "Icon to Altarpiece in the Frankish East: Images of the Virgin and Child Enthroned," Italian Panel Painting of the Duecento and Trecento, ed VM Schmidt, Studies in the History of Art, 61, CASVA Symposium Papers XXXVIII, Washington, DC, 2002, pp 123-145.
  29. “The Freiburg Leaf: crusader art and Loca Sancta around the year 1200,” ch 7, in The Experience of Crusading, a Festschrift in Honour of Jonathan Riley-Smith, eds P Edbury and J Phillips, vol 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp 113-134.  
  30. "Before Louis IX: Crusader Art, 1191-1244" in France and the Holy Land: Frankish Culture at the End of the Crusades, edited by Daniel Weiss and Lisa Mahoney, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2004, pp 138-157.
  31. “Figural Art in the Crusader Kingdom:  Some New Realities,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 58 (2004), pp 315-331.
  32. “East Meets West: The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States,” in A Companion to Medieval Art: Romanesque and Gothic in Northern Europe, ed Conrad Rudolph, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2006, pp 488-509.
  33. ”An Icon of the Crucifixion and the Nativity at Sinai: Investigating its Visual Language,” Pictorial Languages and Their Meanings: Liber Amicorum in Honor of Nurith Kenaan-Kedar, eds CB Verzar, G Fishhof, Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Press, 2006, pp 119-132.
  34. “Mounted Warrior Saints in Crusader Icons: Images of the Knighthoods of Christ,” Knighthoods of Christ: Essays on the History of the Crusades and the Knights Templar, presented to Malcolm Barber, ed Norman Housley, Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2007, pp 87-107.
  35. “Crusader Artistic Interactions with the Mongols in the Thirteent Century:  Figural Imagery, Weapons, and the Çintamani Design,” in Interactions, Artistic Interchange between the Eastern and Western Worlds in the Medieval Period, ed Colum Hourihane, University Park: Penn State University Press, 2007, pp 147-166.
  36. “An Icon of the Crucifixion and the Nativity at Sinai: Investigating the Pictorial Language of its Ornamental Vocabulary:  Chrysography, Pearl-dot Haleoes, and Çintamani,” in In Laudem Hierosolymitani: Studies in Crusades and Medieval Culture in Honour of Benjamin Z. Kedar, eds I Shagrir, R Ellenblum, J Riley-Smith,  Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2007, pp 163-179.      

Encyclopedia Articles

  1. "Kreuzzuge," Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie, ed O Holl (Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1970), vol II, cols 656-657.      
  2. "Crusader Art and Architecture," Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed JR Strayer, vol 4 (New York, 1984), pp 21-27.
  3. "Abu Ghosh," Enciclopedia dell'arte medievale, ed AM Romanini, vol I (Rome, 1990), pp 82-84.
  4. "[Byzantine] Art and the West," and "Crusader Art and Architecture," The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed AP Kazhdan (New York and Oxford, 1991), pp 192-194, 555-557, respectively.
  5. "Crac des Chevaliers," and "Crociati, Pittura e Miniatura," Enciclopedia dell'arte medievale, ed AM Romanini, vol V (Rome, 1994), pp 443-446 and 569-577, respectively.
  6. "Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of," and "Melisende Psalter," The Dictionary of Art, ed Jane Shoaf Turner, London: Macmillan/New York:  Grove, 1996, vol 17, pp 499-507 and vol 21, pp 82-83, respectively.
  7. "Crusader Period," Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, EM Meyers, ed,  New York and Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 1997, vol 2, pp 73-77. 


  1. TSR Boase, Castles and Churches of the Crusading Kingdom (Oxford University Press, l967), for the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 28 (1969), p 24.
  2. R Lejeune and J Stiennon, The Legend of Roland in the Middle Ages (Phaidon Press, 1971), and DJA Ross, Illustrated Medieval Alexander Books in Germany and the Netherlands (Modern Humanities Research Association, 1971), for the Art Bulletin, 55 (1973), pp 620-623.
  3. S Kostof, Caves of God: The Monastic Environment of Byzantine Cappadocia (MIT Press, 1972), for the Slavic Review, 32 (1973), p 601.
  4. Roger Sherman Loomis, Arthurian Legends in Medieval Art, part II in collaboration with Laura Hibbard Loomis (MLA, 1938; 2nd reprint by Kraus Reprint Co, 1975), for the Reprint Bulletin, 20 (1975), p 37.
  5. DM Robb, The Art of the Illuminated Manuscript (Philadelphia Art Alliance Press, 1973), for Speculum, 51 (1976), pp 535-537.
  6. Millard Meiss, French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry, part 3, The Limbourgs and Their Contemporaries (Morgan Library/Braziller, 1974), for Speculum, 52 (1977), pp 712-714.
  7. DE Queller, The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople 1201-1204 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977), for Speculum, 54 (1979), pp 620-622.
  8. Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions (Oxford University Press, 1980), for the Journal of the American Oriental Society (1981), p 458.
  9. (with Michael Burgoyne) H Buschhausen, Die süditalienische Bauplastik im Königreich Jerusalem (Vienna, l978), for the Art Bulletin, 63 (1981), pp 321-324.
  10. Walter Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination (Cornell University Press, 1982), for Speculum, 60 (1985), pp 133-135.
  11. Josef Krasa, The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, A Manuscript in the British Library, trans
  12. Peter Kussi (George Braziller, 1983), for Speculum, 60 (1985), pp 693-694.
  13. Michael Burgoyne, Mamluk Jerusalem: An Architectural Study (Scorpion/World of Islam Festival Trust, 1987), for the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 47 (1988), 319-320.
  14. John Wilkinson (ed) with J Hill and WH Ryan, Jerusalem Pilgrimage: 1099-1185, The Hakluyt Society, Second Series, Volume 167 (London, 1988), for Speculum, 64 (1989), 1051-1053.
  15. (with Kathy Jo Wetter [UNC]), review of Hans Belting, Likeness and Presence:  History of the Image before the Era of Art, trans E Jephcott, Chicago and London:  University of Chicago Press, 1994, for the Bryn Mawr Medieval Review, 18 February 1995, 15,784 bytes or 2,379 words in 245 lines (electronic publication).
  16. Annemarie Weyl Carr, Cyprus and the Devotional Arts of Byzantium in the Era of the Crusades, Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate/Variorum, 2006, for Crusades, 6 (2006).